Few rights are as fundamentally American as the Sixth Amendment's promise that when the government brings its power to bear against an individual, that government also bears the responsibility to ensure the accused has a zealous and dedicated advocate to defend them. A robust defense function helps mitigate against wrongful convictions of the innocent and unjust, excessive sentences for those who are guilty; ensure the Constitution's protections and prohibitions are maintained; shines a light on government overreaches and abuses of power; and protects both the accused and the community.
There is no universal model for providing public defense services. Some jurisdictions have agencies that provide holistic services while others rely exclusively on flat fee contracts to provide representation for every person who qualifies. Regardless of the form they take, across the country public defense systems and the attorneys who work in them are being stretched to their breaking point, jeopardizing the promise of equal justice for all.
Nationally a patchwork of statutes, court rules, and local practices determines how attorneys handling assigned counsel cases are compensated, although virtually all share a core problem: the rates paid are abysmal, often failing to cover basic expenses. NACDL works to ensure court-appointed counsel receive prompt payment, fair hourly rates that take into account overhead and reasonable fees, and end the use of fee caps which can be barriers to meaningful representation.
While Gideon did not describe how each state was to fulfill its 6th Amendment obligations, the Court did make clear the ultimate responsibility for providing public defense lies with the state. States may elect to delegate decisions about public defense structure, oversight, and funding to their counties, but doing so does not absolve them of their responsibility to assure every public defense system has the resources, support, and structure to provide a constitutionally effective defense. Currently many barriers prevent jurisdictions from meeting their constitutional obligation. Through its reports, policies, testimony, and litigation NACDL works to challenge systemic deficiencies and offer resources to create strong public defense delivery systems.
- Collateral Consequences
- Federal Indigent Defense
- Misdemeanor Cases
- Pretrial Advocacy
- Public Defense System
- Rhode Island
- South Carolina
- Trial Penalty
NACDL works to improve and support public defense at the state and local level. From legislative advocacy to litigation support, commenting on court rules to systemic evaluations, NACDL is committed to insuring every person who faces a criminal accusation has meaningful access to an attorney with the time, resources, and expertise needed to provide an effective defense at all stages of the proceedings; has all relevant information needed to make informed decisions about their case; is not subjected to excessive penalties, fines, or fees; and has access to the support personnel needed to fully investigate the government's accusation, challenge questionable forensic practices, and present meaningful evidence in mitigation.
Federal Public Defense
Often considered the gold standard of public defense because of its lower caseloads and better resources than its state level counterparts, the federal public defense system has a number of fundamental systemic flaws that must be corrected for it to serve as the role model it should be. When Congress first authorized the creation of federal public defender offices in 1970, it recognized "the desirability of eventual creation of a strong, independent office to administer the federal defender program," but felt it premature to do so until there was an opportunity to view the operation of the office "over the course of a few years". Report of the Committee to Review the Criminal Justice Act at 9-10 (1993) (Also known as the Prado Report), quoting Senate Report No. 91-790, 91st Cong. 2d Sess. April 23, 1970 at 18). Nearly 5 decades later the federal public defense program remains wholly under the thumb of the judiciary, but spurred on by NACDL and others there are efforts underway to change that.
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Pattern Cross-Examination for DNA and Biological Evidence: A Trial Strategy Guide
NACDL’s Pattern Cross-Examination for DNA and Biological Evidence will assist criminal defense practitioners in scoring points when cross-examining forensic experts in cases involving DNA and biological evidence. This resource contains thousands of questions that will help defense lawyers cross-examine challenging witnesses without reinventing the wheel with each new case. It includes pattern questions that can be used to dominate prosecution DNA experts and level the playing field at trial.
Cross-Examination of the Analyst in Drug Prosecutions (2nd Ed.) By James M. Shellow
Now in its second edition with some new material, James M. Shellow’s book offers what its title promises: ways of thinking about cross-examining the forensic analysts in drug cases. But the book is so much more than that. It offers a look inside the mind of one of the finest cross-examiners and defense lawyers the United States has produced in the last seventy years. This small book can inspire and direct you in making big changes in the way you defend your clients and think about the entire project of trying any case.
Justice For All, Justice Now White T-Shirt (Women’s)
This custom, vintage-faded NACDL t-shirt is 50% polyester, 25% cotton, and 25% rayon weighing 5.2 oz. and is lightwieght, flexible and soft, providing maximum comfort. It features the "Justice For All, Justice Now" slogan and Lady Liberty image on the front, with the NACDL logo on the back. Currently available in both men's and women's sizes in both black and white colors. View the full line-up of colors and sizes on our online store, as well as our other popular and best-selling t-shirt designs at: nacdl.org/store.
Drug Cases Resource Materials Collection - CD-ROM
NACDL’s Drug Cases Resource Materials Collection is the sweeping culmination of every single article of written materials ever published from each installment of NACDL's annual "Defending Modern Drug Cases" seminar. Totaling over 12,000 pages, this vast collection includes 12+ years of motions, briefs, reports, outlines, transcripts, case citations, scholarly articles, powerpoints and other written commentaries. This collection provides trial strategies and tactics you can immediately apply to your current cases.
Mental Illness & the Law: Addressing and Litigating Behavioral Health Disorders in Criminal Cases
Whether it is insanity, impairment, a disorder, or adolescent brain development; mental health and intellectual competence issues affect pretrial supervision, trial and sentencing, and your chances of successfully advocating for your impaired client. This training provides ideas and proven solutions to assist you in advocating for your client during trial, whether it be insanity defenses, jury selection, cross of expert witnesses, persuasion, or mitigation at sentencing.
In May Senator Kamala Harris and Rep. Ted Deutch introduced the EQUAL Defense Act. The Bill aims to bring a measure of parity to the criminal legal system by supporting state and local public defense providers. Among the Bill's goals are:
- Establishing workload limits for public defenders
- Promoting pay parity for public defenders and prosecutors
- Increasing court appointed counsel fees to meet federal rates
- Increasing defender training
- Reauthorizing and increasing funding for student loan repayment
The Bill is supported by NACDL, the ACLU, Color of Change, Gideon's Promise, Lawyers Committee for Civil and Human Rights, Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, NAACP Legal Defense Fund, NAPD, NLADA, and Project on Government Oversight.
Race matters in our criminal legal system. It pervades every aspect of a case, from how likely you are to be stopped by the police, whether you will be subjected to a search, how high your bail is, how likely the state is to seek the death penalty, and how long your sentence may be. NACDL is committed to combating racial bias and racial disparity in the criminal legal system.
A meaningful defense includes a public defense bar who are skilled and knowledgeable. To help public defense attorneys have access to information on core and evolving issues NACDL offers a variety of webinars, trainings, and other resources. On a rotating basis, NACDL will highlight some of these materials.
No skill is more fundamental to the success of the adversarial system than cross-examination. Emanating from the Sixth Amendment's guarantee that "[i]n all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right ... to be confronted with the witnesses against him," the Confrontation Clause ensure a defendant the right to put the honesty, truthfulness, and accuracy of a witness's assertions to the test through cross-examination Mattox v. U.S., 156 US 237 (1895)) Defense attorneys must constantly work to hone their craft and NACDL has resources to help.
- Learn the history of Clarence Earl Gideon
- Read the transcripts from his original trial
- Explore the work of the lawyers
- See Gideon's legacy today
More NACDL Public Defense
Scholarship Opportunities: NACDL offers scholarships to assist public defense attorneys (including public defenders and members of the private bar accepting court appointments) to attend national trainings.
Award: NACDL honors individuals and organizations for exceptional efforts in making positive changes to local, county, state, or federal public defense systems with its Champion of Public Defense Award. In 2019, NACDL honored the Civil Rights Corps and the San Francisco Public Defender's Office for their joint work pursuing pretrial reforms in the state of California.
Read about public defense news and issues in NACDL's The Champion magazine.
NACDL News Releases on Public Defense
News Release ~ 09/13/2018
Judicial Conference Takes Steps Toward Greater Independence for Federal Public Defender System; Nation’s Criminal Defense Bar Encouraged by Progress – Washington, DC (Sept. 13, 2018) – Today, the Judicial Conference of the United States, the national policymaking body for the federal court system, publicly released the 2017 Report of the Ad Hoc Committee to Review the Criminal Justice Act (CJA Review Committee) and issued a statement approving 19 of the Committee’s 35 Interim Recommendations (See CJA Review Committee Report at XXXVI to XL)...
- "Amid Calls for Reform, Maine’s Criminal Defense System Reaches a “Breaking Point”,"
- "Transforming America’s Criminal Justice Landscape Must Include Public Defender Overhaul,"
- "In Kansas And Beyond, Poor Defendants Are Hurt By Lack Of Public Defenders,"